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Nov 15, 2018 cyxnjljp

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35 percent in two years), BJP,Naga People’s Front (NPF) Trinamool Congress (TMC) and Irom Sharmila’s Peoples’ Resurgence and Justice Alliance (PRJA) The state which has the country’s smallest population after Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh mainly comprises of three major communities: Meitei Naga and Kuki The three lived side by side for centuries and developed their heritage in parallel within their respective ethno-social boundaries But today they engage in what can be loosely termed astribal politics While most Nagas are Christians and Meiteis Hindu their religion is not the talking point this election So how does this diverse electorate decide upon a government and which political party holds court with which tribe To understand this dynamics better let’s start with the geographical placement of the state Geographical location and division of states Geographically the state of Manipur is divided into two distinct parts —the hills and the valley The Nagas reside in the hills the Meiteis in the valley Between the hills and the valley there are total 16 districts seven of which were recently created by the Ibobi government (for political gains) The nine existing districts are Bishnupur Thoubal Imphal East Imphal West Chandel Churachendpur Senapati Tamenglong and Ukhrul The new districts are: Kangpokpi Tengnoupal Pherzawl Noney Kamjong Jiribam and Kakching which are carved out of the existing districts Manipur is a land-locked state and shares its boundaries with three other states — Nagaland Assam and Mizoram — and with Myanmar The hill districts of Senapati and Tamenglong which have a greater population of the Naga community share their boundary with Nagaland Tamenglong also shares its boundaries with Assam Churachendpur is the only district which has proximity to Mizoram whereas Ukhrul and Chandel are the gateway to Myanmar Manipur has a population of around 23 million majority of which are Meiteis living in the valley The rest of the population is divided into Nagas Kukis Komrem and Meitei Pangal (Muslims) Of the 60 seats in the state 40 are in the hills and 20 are in the valley hence the major political parties are trying to maintain a balancing act wooing the Nagas and the Meiteis Let’s take a look at which tribe favours what party: Meiteis:With a population of over 13 million Meitei is the oldest tribe of Manipur in fact the state was once known as Mitei-Leipak According to 1891 census the Meiteis were recorded as a forest tribe and they mainly inhabit the valley although they have presence in some of the hill districts too Meiteis is not a recognised Scheduled Tribe by India’s Constitution although they are wrongly categorised as tribe by the outsiders This indigenous tribe was converted into Hinduism in the 18th century which is why a suffix of Devi/Singh is enforced to their names at least by mainland India Politics of the valley According to experts the main political battle in the valley is between Congress and the BJP Okram Ibobi Singh the current chief minister of the state who has served three terms is a Meitei and belongs to the Congress Since most of the Meiteis are confined to the valley they have in the past held protests demanding promulgation of the Inner Line Permit (ILP) in the state The ILP — a system introduced by the British and already existent in Arunachal Pradesh Mizoram and Nagaland —protects tribal people by preventing ‘outsiders’ from buying land or settling in their area The Meitei wanted the ILP to be introduced in the state to prevent unrestricted entry of ‘outsiders’ One of their major grievance was that the they could never buy Naga land in the hills but that was not the case for their land During the Meitei protest schools were shut for weeks prices of basic commodities rose and the streets were filled with violent protesters Witnessing this scene the Manipur Assembly passed three bills aimed at giving more rights to indigenous groups who accuse "outsiders" of taking their land and jobs That eased the Meiteis but upset the Nagas and Kukis and hence a visible divide between the communities is visible The other tribes have often taken up arms to protest against the special treatment Meiteis get from the state government Hence in all likelihood the Meiteis of the valley are in support of the Congress government despite the anti-incumbency With BJP’s entry in the state questions are raised whether the Hindu Meiteis will be swept away by the Modi wave Too many Congress leaders have already jumped ship and alleged themselves to BJP however experts believe that the Meiteis still view the newcomers —BJP with suspicion According to Firstpost writer Seema Guha the Hindu Meiteis see the BJP as backing the Christian tribes living in the sparsely populated hill areas of the state This is because of the Naga People’s Front (NPF) ruling Nagaland is aligned to the BJP Meitei’s are also wary of the BJP giving in to the NSCN-IM demands However the RSS-BJP workershave made inroads in the state with their work with the tribals and pointed out the lack of development in the state by the Congress government This is reflected in the act that in September 2016 when BJP president Amit Shah held a meeting in Imphal there were reportedly about 30000 booth level workers attending it BJP leaders are promising a wave of development in the state with better infrastructure and better governance Narendra Modi (L) and Okram Ibobi Manipuri people have historically chosen a parties based on leader representing their constituency as opposed to the face of the party says a local expert If the leader promises to work for the people and shows potential he gets elected With an increasing number of Congress leaders leaving the party to join the BJP there is an uncertainty regarding which party the Meiteis will choose Nagas: The Nagas are an indigenous tribe which became a part of the British India in 1881 after the British annexed Assam in 1826 The total population of Nagas in Manipur is more than three lakh One of the oldest demands for this indigenous tribe is the creation of Greater Nagaland —a state which would contain parts of Manipur This ethnic group is an amalgamation of various sub-tribes like the Tangkhul Maram Anal Maring etc and also the old Kukis who like to be recognised as the new Nagas The Nagas mainly reside in the hills in districts likeSenapati Ukhrul andTamenglong which have close proximity to the Naga state Nagaland Politics of Naga Peace Accord On 3 August 2015 Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced a peace deal with Nagaland insurgents which rests on a breakthrough formula not involving redrawing of the state’s borders This was touted as the Naga Peace Accord the contents of which were not revealed to the media The deal allegedly involves creating a mechanism which would create institutions like allowing autonomy to Naga tribes living in Manipur Recently Congress leaders like Rahul Gandhi and Ibobi criticised the deal made between the Government of India and the NSCN (IM) which is the largest Naga rebel group and asked the government to reveal the contents of that draft A report by The Indian Express suggested that a degree of autonomy in Naga homelands would be part of the Naga Peace Accord that hopes to please all factions in the state This includes a majority of the Meitei people who are also sensitive about territorial integrity The BJP hopes to use the Naga Peace Accord as a means to prevail peace in the state and garner votes this election season Anti-incumbency politics The anti-incumbency in Manipur is largely driven by the Naga community and its sub tribes The United Naga Council (UNC) which claims to be a common platform for Nagas in Manipur imposed a blockade of two key highways — Imphal-Dimapur (NH2) and Imphal-Jiribam (NH37) — from 1 November 2016 to protest against the state government In December 2016 Ibobi declared creation of seven new districts for better administrative purposes The number of districts in Manipur from nine to 16 The Nagas living in Manipur took offence to this creation A local Naga leader talking to us said "This is our land The decision to divide the land was taken without our permission" The UNC called tripartite meetings with the Government of India and the state government to resolve the issue of creating new districts However the Ibobi government deferred claiming that no administrative decisions could be made till the assembly elections concluded Hence with the green signal from both the NSCN-IM the UNC organised an economic blockade Manipur like many of the North Eastern states is land-locked and the trucks are the mainstay for suppliers As the national highway runs through Naga-dominated areas the valley can be easily cut off The NDA-led government at the Centre has shown enthusiasm to resolve the economic blockade issue however the state government has not lifted a finger The Nagas perceive this as a betrayal by the Congress govt and hence find themselves leaning towards the outsiders —BJP — who promise to bring peace and development Kukis:With a population of over 2 lakh most of the Kuki sub-tribes reside in the Churachendpur district in south Manipur Some Kukis also reside in Naga dominated Senapati and the old Kukis which have a small population of over 30000 reside in Naga areas identifying themselves as the new Nagas The Kukis too have a history of violence in the state? The TMC is contesting in 24 seats in the 60-member Assembly. The list continues…….Hawsawi is accused of arranging finances and travel for some of the hijackers. on Sept. 2015. is going to be helpful, the Infancy Gospel of Thomas, has allowed them entry but is struggling to cope with the worlds most rapidly developing humanitarian crisis.

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his son,[email protected] and hopefully that can be remedied.

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